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      1.  首页 >> 哲学
        数据的赋权与祛权:基于微观权力的数据伦理分析
        2019年10月05日 10:48 来源:《伦理学研究》 作者:张卫 字号

        内容摘要:

        关键词:

        作者简介:

           一、引言 

          数据的伦理价值分析是当前诸多人文社会学科共同关注的热点话题, 由于不同的学科 (如政治学、经济学、管理学、法学、伦理学等) 所关心的方面不同, 所采取的分析视角和方法也不尽相同, 这些分析视角相互补充、相互启发, 有助于我们全面深入地理解数据所引发的社会伦理效应。本文尝试从“微观权力”的视角对数据的社会伦理后果进行分析与阐释。

          “微观权力”概念来自法国思想家福柯, 它与宏观的“王权”和“法权”相对。“王权”和“法权”以“剥夺和死亡为中心”, 具有生杀予夺的强制力与震慑力。“微观权力”则“以一种十分隐蔽的方式悄无声息地进行着, 它没有法律的威严神态, 也没有革命的激昂热情, 但它却以一种润物无声的高超技巧塑造着每一个现代人的主体意识, 从而将整个社会纳入它的监视、控制之下。”[1]它表现在各种有形和无形的建制之中, 既存在于人与人之间, 也存在于人与物之间。工厂、学校、监狱、军营、家庭等场域都可以见到“微观权力”的身影。福柯更是一针见血地指出, “微观权力”的作用机制本质上是以“技术”的方式体现的, 技术以一种意志性力量规范和影响着人们对世界的感知和行为, 塑造着整个社会与世界。

          很显然, 数据技术就是这样一种“微观权力”。它像一道“普照光”, 照亮了世界的每个角落, 让我们看到以前不曾看到的景象;另一方面, 它也让世界的每个角落都曝光在“全景式监狱”的监视之下。换言之, 数据一方面赋予人类以新的权力, 同时又剥夺了人类原有的某些权利, 本文把前者称之为数据的“赋权”, 后者称之为数据的“祛权”。赋权和祛权是相伴而生的, 它既体现在“同一主体”身上, 也体现在“不同主体”之间。每个主体都会被赋权和祛权, 但不同的主体被赋权和祛权的程度又是不同的, 下面我们将从“同一主体”和“不同主体”两个维度分别予以分析。

        作者简介

        姓名:张卫 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:李秀伟)
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