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      1.  首页 >> 语言学
        构建汉语语词学理论体系
        2019年09月26日 09:41 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:冯雪 字号

        内容摘要:

        关键词:

        作者简介:

          2019年5月,语言学家温端政的新著《语词学基础》由商务印书馆出版,我有幸担任了这部书稿的责任编辑。温老师长期从事方言学、语汇学方面的研究,与商务印书馆合作30余年,出版的语言学著作和主编的语类工具书多达十数种,是我们的老作者和老朋友。

          能否准确把握书稿内容,帮助作者提升书稿质量,考验编辑的专业能力。在汉语语言学研究范畴中,语音、词汇、语法等是基本要素,语素、字词、句子是最常见的语言单位,书中所说的“语词”指什么?“语词学”又研究什么呢?

          开创汉语语词学

          在多年方言俗语等语汇研究基础上,该书作者提出要对汉语中的“语”“语汇”下定义,并认为“语”和“词”是性质不同的语言单位,主张将“语”从“词汇”中分立出来,同时构建汉语语汇学理论,这就是作者早前提出的“语词分立”说。这一观点在当时语言学界曾引起不小的轰动。几年后,通过研究实践,作者又提出在语词分立基础上实现“语词合一”,同时构建汉语语词学的理论体系。诚如该书前言中所说:“语和词、语汇和词汇,是汉语里同中有异、异中有同的密不可分的‘孪生’单位。从异的方面考虑,可以建立彼此平行的词汇学和语汇学,而从同的方面考虑,则有必要建立汉语语词学。”正是基于这样的考虑,作者运用多年来语词分立与语词合一两个辩证的研究成果,提出建立汉语语词学理论体系的设想,并开始了艰难的探索。该书正是这一研究的初步成果和集中体现。

          通过将词汇系统和语汇系统进行对比,全书在语词的分类、生成与构成、意义,以及异形语词等10个方面集中论述,搭建起有关汉语语词和语词学研究的基本框架。“汉语语词学不是汉语词汇学和汉语语汇学的简单相加,而应当是把词和语、词汇和语汇融合在一起,从汉语实际出发,建立起一个具有汉语特色的新的理论体系……汉语语词学的主要任务是把汉语词汇系统和语汇系统的主要方面进行比较,然后在此基础上建立汉语语词学的理论体系。因此,汉语语词学是汉语词汇学和汉语语汇学的补充。”该书的出版,标志着一个新的研究领域——汉语语词学的诞生,具有开创意义。

          将语词与文化相结合

          在审读和编辑加工过程中,我发现该书具有以下几个特点。一是内容丰富,旁征博引。书中不仅涉及语言学研究视域中的各方面,而且作者在例证中运用多年编纂语类辞书积累下来的大量语料——有的源于近现代小说、专著,有的援引自古籍、经典,有的来自汉语语词辞书举例,有的则涉及英、日、俄等外文资料,当然还包括作者长期从事的山西、温州等地方言研究,加以阐释。全书还有一个典型的体例特点,就是“附论”部分的运用,在一些章节后面,作者将与此章节论述内容相关的已有研究成果进行部分引用展示。这样的做法打破了以往作为参考资料仅仅出现书目或文章名的引用惯例,将有关这一论述的相同乃至不同学术观点和成果集中起来,使读者读一书而知百篇,更能开拓思路,从而引发深入思考。

          二是始终将语词与文化相结合。语言是文化的重要载体,也是文化的主要组成部分。语言反映着一个国家、一个民族、一个社会的历史文化背景、思维方式、价值取向和精神追求。因此对于某种语言的理解和研究,归根结底是对其背后所蕴含的社会文化的理解和研究。我们对汉语语言学的研究,最终也是为了通过汉语,将中华民族的思想、行为和习惯等进行展示和传播,与世界上其他国家和地区的文化、文明进行沟通和对话,形成互鉴共荣的成果。该书时刻观照文化和语词间的密切关系,不仅在多处论述和例证中将语词与文化意蕴的关联做了呈现。例如,强调方言语词与民俗文化的关系,列举饮食、服饰、婚丧礼仪、文娱活动中出现的语词,体现出汉语语词博大精深的文化表现力;还特别增设了“语词与文化”一章,专门论述语词和文化的关系,着重介绍与中国传统文化有关、体现民族文化感情色彩的语词等。将语词与文化意蕴结合考察的方法,使得全书更显生动有趣。

          三是提供了可供学习和借鉴的研究方法。作者在书中主要通过比较研究的方法,探索语词学理论框架的构建,这种方法梳理了词汇和语汇的共同点和不同点,有利于找到规律,实现研究目标。同时,运用这种方法,将词汇和语汇放入不同视角和主题中开展系统比较,能够揭示出它们之间的内在联系,不仅易操作也易于读者理解。

          治学为人之道跃然纸上

          在编辑加工过程中,基于该书的展现形式和整体设计,我与作者进行了多次沟通。一是关于本书的特殊体例“附论”。初稿附论部分穿插于正文中,以分割线和小字号加以区分,但由于有些附论征引的观点多、文字长,甚至多过正文论述,较易造成读者混淆,影响正论部分的阅读和理解。经过商讨,我们将附论移至每节正文后,并做相关序号标注。既保留了附论的形式,也使得全书结构更加清晰疏朗。二是关于封面及版式的设计。为体现学术著作严肃庄重的气质,又不至于流于刻板,该书封面选用草书书法体底纹,配以淡蓝色竖排书名的设计方案,整体设计简约大气。

          在不断地联络沟通中,我深切感受到作者的治学做人之道。作为年近九旬的老者,他不仅持之以恒地写作与思考,而且勇于创新开拓、打破自己熟悉的研究领域边界,令人感佩至深。我作为年轻的编辑和后学,在接到书稿责编任务时惴惴不安,生怕作者觉得我学识尚浅,不能承担这一重任。不曾想,作者为人谦虚和蔼,特别是对我提出的每个修改细节,均不厌其烦地认真审读、修改,并一一作出回应和解答,标明出处,特别是在审读校样过程中提出不少我没有发现的问题。甚至在出版进度较慢时,还鼓励我不要着急,抓紧时间完善书稿,消灭一切错误最重要。这种开放包容的治学作风,不只体现在附论中引用不少与自己学术观点不同的文献,提供读者参考;还体现在该书出版后广泛征求学界意见,尤其是在听到反对意见时认为,学术有争论是好事,这样才能更好地促进学科建设和学术发展,尽显大家风范。

          (作者单位:商务印书馆)

        作者简介

        姓名:冯雪 工作单位:商务印书馆

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:马云飞)
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