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      1.  首页 >> 文联
        乌托邦的二重性:审美乌托邦研究的出发点
        2019年09月30日 23:09 来源:《山东社会科学》2018年第12期 作者:周均平 字号
        关键词:乌托邦;二重性;审美乌托邦;出发点

        内容摘要:乌托邦作为人类最重要的精神现象之一,是一个涉及广泛领域的重大理论和实践问题。

        关键词:乌托邦;二重性;审美乌托邦;出发点

        作者简介:

            作者简介:周均平(1954- ),男,文学博士,山东师范大学文学院教授、博士生导师,主要从事文艺美学及审美文化研究,山东 济南 250014

            关键词:乌托邦;二重性;审美乌托邦;出发点

          内容提要:乌托邦作为人类最重要的精神现象之一,是一个涉及广泛领域的重大理论和实践问题,也是引发激烈社会和学术论争的重大社会和学术问题,对它的基本认识和价值评价存在着严重分歧甚至否定和肯定的根本对立。笔者认为乌托邦是一种悖论性存在,具有二重性甚或多维多层二重性,主要表现在人学前提、基本语义和原始文本、性质内容和构成要素、功能作用和实践效果或现实化历史化、价值评价和价值取向的二重性等等乌托邦本身及与其不可分割的主要因素上。通过何种途径或方式扬长避短,走出乌托邦二重性的悖论和困境,审美乌托邦独特的性质特征等决定了它似乎是一种最佳选择。在这个意义上,乌托邦的二重性就逻辑且历史地成为审美乌托邦研究的出发点。

            标题注释:本文系作者主持的国家社会科学基金项目“审美乌托邦研究”(项目编号:09BZW010)的阶段性成果。

         

          乌托邦作为人类最重要的精神现象之一,是一个涉及广泛领域的重大理论和实践问题,乌托邦及其精神植根于人的本质,为人所特有,是人类前进的精神原动力之一。在一定意义上说,没有对指向完美的乌托邦的追求,就没有人类的进步。作为一种“元叙事”,它几乎贯穿人类世界的整个历史,构成了人类想象世界与现实生活里的特殊一隅;但乌托邦也是引发激烈社会和学术论争的重大社会和学术问题,对它的基本认识和价值评价存在着严重分歧甚至否定和肯定的根本对立。否定派以其理论上的缺陷特别是实践上的屡屡失落和严峻困境,给其加上极权主义等等帽子,推出种种乌托邦衰落、穷竭、告别、终结、死亡论,主张拒乌托邦于千里之外乃至置之死地而后快:肯定派则以其种种积极因素和作用,提出乌托邦复兴、召回、重构、重建论,希冀将其复兴和重构。可谓泾渭分明,水火不容。为什么对同一事物的认识和评价会出现如此巨大的差异和分歧?这是乌托邦本身的问题,还是乌托邦所依存的人和社会及实践的问题?有人认为,乌托邦本身没有问题,是人对乌托邦的认识和实践或使其历史化和现实化有问题。有人认为乌托邦本身即有二重性,而且正是它本身的二重性导致了人对其认识和实践的二重性。笔者则认为,乌托邦本身和人对其的认识和实践都有二重性,当然最主要的还是乌托邦本身的二重性。目前学界对这一问题尚未有专门系统的研究,深入探讨这一情况,对于我们全面辩证地认识和把握乌托邦性质和规律,扬长避短,以长补短,尽可能跳出恶性循环的宿命具有重要的学术价值和实践意义。本文即以尽可能全面辩证地认识和把握乌托邦的二重性为旨归,为探讨审美乌托邦、走出两难困境、实现悖论超越,确定历史和逻辑的起点或出发点。

          笔者认为乌托邦是一种悖论性存在,具有二重性甚或多维多层二重性,具体表现在乌托邦本身及与其不可分割的主要因素上。乌托邦悖论或二重性的主要表现可大体归纳为如下五大方面。

          一、人学前提的二重性

          乌托邦是依存于人和人类社会的社会现象。离开了人,离开了人类社会,乌托邦将不复存在。众所周知,人是我们目前已知的最复杂、最高级的生命存在。当然在一定意义上说,也是最富于矛盾性、悖论性的存在。许多著名的哲学家和思想家对此曾做过简明扼要的概括。如:人生而自由,却又是“被抛”进人世来的;人生而自由,却又无时不在枷锁之中;人会思想,却只是一根“芦苇”;人半是天使,半是野兽;如此等等,不一而足。

          许多伟大的文学家和艺术家对此也曾做过无比生动形象的表现。如鲁迅塑造的蜚声世界文坛的文学形象阿Q,质朴愚昧但又圆滑无赖,率真任性但又忍辱屈从,狭隘保守但又盲目趋时,排斥异端而又向往革命,憎恶权势而又趋炎附势,蛮横霸道而又懦弱卑怯,敏感禁忌而又麻木健忘,不满现状但又安于现状,其性格就是一个由各种性格因素按一定的结构方式构成的充满矛盾的复杂有机整体系统。“各种性格元素分别形成一组一组对立统一的联系,它们又构成复杂的性格系列。这个性格系列的突出特征就是两重性,即两重人格”。①这是阿Q之所以具有永久艺术魅力的奥秘所在。

          就连审视科技发展,也无法脱离对人的复杂性和二重性的反思。就人与自然、人与科技的关系而言,人性系统自身就表现出极强的矛盾性。人性的矛盾就在于,既要依赖于外界自然而生存,又要谋求自己独立的、愈益否定这种依赖的生活世界。越来越高精尖的科技,便是人性企图否定和超越自身对大自然之全面依赖的产物。在这样的矛盾中,人性有时跟物性难以区别,有时与兽性难分伯仲,甚至有过之而无不及。但人性有时又颇类神性。当人在改天换地的各种社会实践中展现出无比的智慧和卓绝的能力,当人把自己的道德人格修养到“天人合一”“物我一体”“民胞物与”“与天地精神相往来”的境界时,“神”的形象会浮现在脑海,人俨然上帝。于是,有人把人性看成是物性、兽性和神性的矛盾统一体,有人把人在具体的现实生活中的各种表现抽象成“人性的优点”和“人性的弱点”等。其实这都是人性现实表现的悖论。甚至科技的矛盾与人的矛盾也不是独立于人性而发生的,它归根到底是人性的矛盾的一种表现。②

          显而易见,在人的身上,纠结着兽性与人性、人性与神性、感性与理性、情感与理智、身体与精神、伟大与渺小、崇高与滑稽、悲剧与喜剧、聪明与愚蠢、谦虚与傲慢、真与假、善与恶、美与丑等等多种多样的矛盾对立关系和因素。它们有时严峻对立,有时趋于和谐,有时此消彼长,有时齐头并进,千变万化,不可方物。人性的这些矛盾性和复杂性不能不影响到乌托邦的性质及对其的认识和评价。

        作者简介

        姓名:周均平 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:刘思彤)
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