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      1.  首页 >> 社科基金 >> 基金管理 >> 项目成果
        加强非遗和旅游深度融合
        2019年09月24日 09:09 来源:中国社会科学网-中国社会科学报 作者:田磊 字号

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          非物质文化遗产(以下简称“非遗”)是一个民族或群体的文化及其传统的重要组成部分,对于人类社会或群体乃至民族和国家的文化认同、民族精神的承续,都具有十分重要的作用。非遗和旅游对文化的认同追求为两者融合提供了市场空间和价值基础。随着文旅融合趋势进一步增强,如何从产业融合的视角理解非遗和旅游的关系,研究非遗和旅游发展的融合、创新与相互促进是需要深入探究和思考的重要命题。

          非遗和旅游融合的基本内涵

          作为互动要素的资源整合。非遗资源与旅游通过交叉渗透和整合重组,能够突破各自原有的产业领域,共生共赢而形成新的非遗旅游产品业态和产业体系。非遗和旅游融合发展不是简单的要素叠加,而是非遗和吃、住、行、游、购、娱各种要素有机融合和资源重组,从而加深旅游产业的文化内涵,实现非遗旅游性与旅游文化性的有机统一。就这点来说,全国各地优秀案例很多,如无锡的惠山泥人、天津杨柳青年画和潍坊风筝等,几乎是游客的必买品,以文化创意激活非遗资源旅游利用的新动能,可以取得显著的经济效益和社会效益。

          作为互补的产业价值创新。非遗独特的文化性构成了潜在的旅游价值,非遗先天的市场基因和日益繁荣的旅游市场空间优势互补。在融合过程中,通过功能重组和价值创新,形成涵盖非遗产业和旅游产业核心价值的新价值链,将释放更强能量,取得“1+1>2”的产业叠加效应,旅游促进非遗的传承交流,从而带动对非遗文化的有效保护,推动旅游业高质量发展的新局面。

          呈现动态优化过程。在非遗和旅游融合过程中,仍然存在价值观念、体制机制、运作方式等方面的矛盾和冲突,实现非遗和旅游的有机融合要经历“磨合—融合—和合”的发展历程,在保持本真性、原生态的同时实现非遗的经济价值和产业价值之间的动态优化调整,并最终实现两者的平等互惠和协调发展。如广西道真仡佬族苗族自治县打造“中国傩城”品牌,建立旅游主题公园、主题餐厅等,开发一系列傩戏面具、傩戏服饰、傩戏饰品等旅游产品,推动非遗和旅游各领域、多方位、全链条深度融合,实现资源共享、优势互补、协同并进,为非遗保护传承和旅游发展提供新引擎新动力,形成发展新优势。

          非遗和旅游融合的对策措施

          创新非遗和旅游融合的顶层设计和环境机制。加强非遗和旅游的管理体制改革和工作机制创新,通过沟通协作打破非遗和旅游融合的制度壁垒,形成科学合理的管理体制、多样化的投入机制和市场化的运作机制,建立非遗和旅游融合发展的长效协调机制和综合治理机制,逐步开拓非遗和旅游融合发展的工作路径、实际举措和市场空间,激发非遗旅游的活力。在政府引导下,按照“宜融则融,能融尽融”原则,找准最大公约数、最佳连接点,将非遗的开发保护与丰富旅游新业态相结合。江苏昆山打破区域局限,举办“戏曲百戏”盛典,将国内非遗戏剧集中交流演出、活态展现,打造以戏曲文化为主题的旅游线路产品,通过戏曲传承发展与旅游资源开发的互促共进,实现了政府主导下非遗和旅游的真融合、深融合。

          打造非遗和旅游融合的规模效益和品牌产品。在尊重不同类型非遗特点和个性的基础上,丰富非遗和旅游融合载体形式,对市场类的非遗项目进行聚集开发,打破非遗生产小、散、弱的“家族式创业”或“单打独斗”态势,通过完善非遗旅游产业链和消费链条,形成规模化发展。在规模化的同时,充分利用非遗产品垄断性、品牌性、原真性、神秘性、保值性等特点,坚持活态性、情景性、时代性、特色性、亲民性的设计原则,对接不同区域、不同群体、不同文化背景的市场人群,形成可市场化推广的产品集群,促进有市场竞争力的非遗项目产业化、品牌化。如针对部分非遗传承人地处偏远地区或农村,缺少规模化生产的资金、设备和营销手段等问题,宁夏非物质文化遗产保护中心将非遗项目,如盐池回庄刺绣、闫家贺兰石砚、桂琴刺绣、回族汤瓶八诊、伏兆娥剪纸、沙湖回族古陶乐坊等7项,实施“贴非遗标识”,一方面帮助这些“小众”非遗项目实现了规模化生产,另一方面通过贴标的方式来提升非遗产品的价值,打造具有地域特色的非遗旅游产品和品牌体系,带动和促进当地民俗技艺的传承与发展。

          构建非遗和旅游融合的产业体系。壮大非遗和旅游市场主体,推动旅游企业以资本为纽带整合非遗资源,实现优势互补、市场共享。以“非遗+景点”“非遗+民宿”“非遗+研学”“非遗+文创”等方式助推产业融合和转型升级,进一步提高非遗、旅游与相关产业的融合,从而衍生新业态,拓宽产业面,拉长产业链。构建非遗旅游产业体系,要在大力促进“非遗+旅游”产业融合发展的同时,加强旅游供给侧结构性改革,推进旅游结构调整和要素优化配置,推动产业向价值链的高端发展,推动非遗与旅游核心层、外围层、相关层和上中下游产业链有机结合,推动非遗旅游产业与一、二、三产业融合,形成整体发展的竞争优势。如云南元阳县哈尼梯田在多依树景区梯田核心区实施植树造林25.6万亩,套种林下经济草果8万亩,梯田养鱼600亩,实现非遗+旅游+农业融合的产业化,带动了当地农民就业,实现了农民增收脱贫、非遗保护传承、旅游产业优质发展的三赢局面。

          提升非遗和旅游融合的质量效益。加强对非遗旅游资源的传承保护和合理利用。无论是生产性保护,还是创新利用模式,都必须在尊重历史和传统文化基础上,融合现代优质旅游理念,推陈出新,兼顾“保护链”与“产业链”衔接,实现非遗和旅游要素高效聚集,保证非遗和旅游融合的质量和效益。例如浙江省磐安县举行的“乌石小镇·原味年”活动,迎大旗、踩街、舞狮子、舞龙等非遗民俗活动吸引了全国各地的游客,游客们看非遗表演、赏非遗文化,7天时间旅游收入达1.74亿元。相反,目前部分地区存在将传统的具有宗教、祭祀、信仰仪式性质的非遗产作为一般民俗纳入旅游参与性节目表演,使得庄严民俗庸俗化,虽然收获一定的经济效益,但也使非遗在资本和利润的社会环境中面目全非。在非遗和旅游融合过程中,只有坚持创造性转化和创新性发展,重“量”又重“质”,才能实现可持续发展,还能避免走上滥化、泛化、庸俗化的另类道路。

         

          (本文系山东省社科规划项目“全域旅游视角下山东省旅游产业经济绩效与影响因素研究”(16CLYJ15)阶段性成果)

          (作者单位:山东师范大学商学院)

        作者简介

        姓名:田磊 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:齐泽垚)
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