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      1.  首页 >> 跨学科
        《春秋》里的微言大义
        2019年09月27日 09:33 来源:《学习时报》 作者:杨朝明 李文文 字号

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          《春秋》的作者相传是孔子,关于孔子的作品也有不少,但如果请孔子本人推荐最能代表他思想的著作,他很有可能会推荐《春秋》。孔子说自己“志在《春秋》”,其中表达的微言大义,彰显其正名守分的政治主张。

          一个时代与一部经书

          一年四季,春夏秋冬,“春秋”曾是周代各诸侯国历史记载的代名词。孔子根据鲁国的历史写成《春秋》,“春秋”竟成为他记载的这个时代和这部史书共同的名字。或者说,《春秋》曾是史书的通名,后成为春秋鲁国历史的专名。

          《春秋》是一部编年体史书,记载了从鲁隐公元年(公元前722年)到鲁哀公十四年(公元前479年)的历史。《春秋》记涉诸侯国之间征伐、会盟、朝聘等事,还有日蚀、月蚀、星变、灾害等自然现象,以及祭祀、婚丧、城筑、狩猎、土田等社会生活。它为鲁国史书,却不只写鲁国历史,对各诸侯国多有涉及。

          春秋时期,周王室式微,诸侯国壮大,社会激烈动荡,以血缘宗法维系的政治体制面临重大变革,以王道传统为核心的政治精神趋向崩溃。在孔子看来,这是一个天下无道的乱世,他周游列国,到处奔走,希望君主们为政以德,不要背离王道传统,选贤与能,讲信修睦,爱民敬事,上下相亲,社会和谐。

          但是,期愿已远远不足平镇当时滔滔之天下,在“争于气力”的春秋之末年,其主张的“修己以安人”的内圣外王之道可以说是“暗而不明,郁而不发”。在这样残酷却又无奈的现实面前,自己该何去何从?于是,他想到通过历史的记载表达个人的政治主张,“载之空言,不如见之于行事之深切著明也”。他依据鲁国的历史资料作《春秋》,将历史的真实记下来,寓褒贬,别善恶,以俟后人。

          是的,惩恶劝善,字字针砭,正是《春秋》的特点。孟子说:“世衰道微,邪说暴行有作,臣弑其君者有之,子弑其父者有之。孔子惧,作《春秋》。”在孟子看来,《春秋》是“天子之事也”,他是在替圣王制法。孔子本人非常看重《春秋》,他说:“知我者其惟《春秋》乎!罪我者其惟《春秋》乎!”孔子以后,后人纷纷进行研究解读,中国学术文化史上竟形成了一门影响深远的显学即“《春秋》学”。人们认识到,《春秋》以寓王法,厚典、用礼、命德、讨罪,其大要皆天子之事也。一部《春秋》,为后世虑,意义十分深远。

          微言,需要“知微之显”

          《春秋》语言简略却意义深奥,通过“属辞比事”将致治之法垂于后世。《春秋》以史载经,是经世大法,昭示中华史学的庄严使命。《中庸》说“入德”之法要“知微之显”,欲知大意,先明微言。

          《春秋》微言,首见言辞之微。《春秋》记事,用语谨严,最少1字,最多者也只有40多字。言辞简略,却用词考究,咀嚼有味,褒贬善恶就在简略的叙述之中。比如“弑”是以下犯上的专用词,表达乱相横生、君臣父子相残;“奔”是逃亡的特指,可以看到流离失所,无所归依。由君主的命运,可见一般百姓的离散;处处“攻”“伐”,可见春秋无义战。《春秋》微言,就在这个“微”中褒善贬恶,扬善去恶,拨乱反正。这种叙事方式,被称为“春秋笔法”,以史载经,以文载道,对后世产生了深远影响。

          《春秋》微言,还见事态变化。董仲舒云:“春秋二百四十年之中,弑君三十六,亡国五十二,细恶不绝之所致也。”小过不慎,终酿大祸,以致亡家败国。司马迁说:“臣弑君,子弑父,非一旦一夕之故也,其渐久矣。”很多灾祸并非突然发生。《春秋》叙事令人洞悉原委,鉴往知来,从而防微杜渐,彰显了礼的意义。礼深入人心,可经国济世,让人守正不阿,坚守信念,从而穷不失义,达不离道。

          《春秋》微言,要在守常不乱。在《春秋》中,守常与权变并不矛盾,“经”与“权”是相辅相成的存在。其时措之宜,或抑或纵、或予或夺、或进或退、或微或显,贵在得乎义理之安、文质之中、宽猛之宜、是非之公,唯有善会者才能得其大旨。胡安国称《春秋》为“史外传心之要典”,故先儒说经于《春秋》特为矜慎,义精仁熟者方能知其所择。

          大义,在于观念和价值

          任何有序的社会与文明都需要一个共同的价值基础和是非标准。《春秋》看似一家之言,实则承继上古三代,继往开来。其远述尧舜之道,近守文武之法,唯有奉行王道仁政,知荣知辱,修身、齐家、治国、平天下方是经世大法。正如西汉司马迁所说:“夫《春秋》,上明三王之道,下辨人事之纪,别嫌疑,明是非,定犹豫,善善恶恶,贤贤贱不肖,存亡国,继绝世,补弊起废,王道之大者也。”其唯有天下为公的格局、内圣外王的精神,才能社会和谐,人心和顺,天下太平,这才是《春秋》“微言”中的“大义”。

          钱穆先生认为,《春秋》在当时已崭然成为一新史,是当时的大“通史”,亦可说是当时的“世界史”。有人类,有世界,就逃不掉历史批判。所谓历史批判,一部分是自然的,另一部分则是道义的,道义由自然中产生。自然势力在外,道义觉醒则在内。《春秋》则建立出一大道义,明白教人如此则得,如此则失,如此则是,如此则非。此项道义,论其极致,乃与历史自然合一,此亦可谓是天人合一。《春秋》和合历史自然,和合天人之际,昭示是非得失。天下国家得此大义则治,失此大义则乱。所谓“大义”者,大纲、人伦、道理、教化尽在其中,亘古不变。

          可以说,那时的诸侯国之间,唯有达成共识,遵守规则,才会和平与稳定,因此诸侯会盟就应有共同的遵循。然而,总是有背盟、叛盟者打破和谐与和睦的格局。历史教训也警醒着今天的世界,天下为公,四海一家,遵守公约,合作共赢,这才是大义。

          要旨,正名守分而已

          司马迁云:“《春秋》之中,弑君三十六,亡国五十二,诸侯奔走不得保其社稷者不可胜数。察其所以?皆失其本已。”诸圣先哲所叮咛者,多在警醒人们回到自己的本分,君子务本,本立而道生。此即《大学》所云:“为人君,止于仁;为人臣,止于敬;为人子,止于孝;为人父,止于慈;与国人交,止于信。”

          人之为人,便是一个社会性的存在。“大道之行”便是“天下为公”。所谓“公”,指人的公共意识与公德意识,强调的是“人之为人”和“人之异于禽兽”的那些“礼义”,那些为人处世的那些根本原则,那些基本的人伦法则。《春秋》文字简略,于是有了解释《春秋》的《左氏传》(简称《左传》)以及《公羊传》和《谷梁传》。《公羊传》《谷梁传》详其义旨,通过对《春秋》文本的解说,阐发其内涵;《左氏传》详其本事,通过对《春秋》史实的进一步铺陈,彰显其思想。更能看出《春秋》意义饱满,内涵丰富。

          读《春秋》,要将其置于中华道统的宏阔体系中,置于“六经之教”体系中,与《诗》《书》《礼》《乐》《易》并读。宋儒胡安国说:“《春秋》见诸行事,非空言比也。公好恶,则发乎《诗》之情;酌古今,则贯乎《书》之事;兴常典,则体乎《礼》之经;本忠恕,则导乎《乐》之和;著权制,则尽乎《易》之变。百王之法度,万世之准绳,皆在此书。”在他看来,六经之有《春秋》,就如法律有了断案的准则,不学此经而处大事、决大疑,能不惑者鲜矣。这个评价可以说无以复加了。读《春秋》要把握要领,理而不乱。这个要领,应该就是正名守分,就是明是非,重人伦,敦教化。

        作者简介

        姓名:杨朝明 李文文 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:马云飞)
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