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      1.  首页 >> 跨学科
        王夫之经世致用的治学之道
        2019年09月25日 16:33 来源:《学习时报》 作者:黄卉 字号

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          王夫之,明末清初著名思想家,与顾炎武、黄宗羲并称明末清初三大儒。王夫之的治学范围极广,于经、史、诸子、天文、历法、文学无所不通。他的学术思想广博精微,对后世产生了深远的影响。曾国藩曾评价他:“先生皆已发之于前,与后贤若合符契。”在王夫之宏大的思想体系中,其有关读书治学方面的思想也是值得重视的,他的治学之道对现代人具有重要的启发作用。

          辨其大义,察其微言

          南北朝时期,梁元帝萧绎在都城沦陷之际,下令将宫中十四万册藏书付之一炬,问其原因,梁元帝的回答是:“读书万卷,尤有今日,故焚之。”针对此事,王夫之作《论梁元帝读书》一文,对梁元帝的行为进行了深刻批判。其言道:“帝之自取灭亡,非读书之故,而抑未尝非读书之故也”。梁元帝陷入江山易主的困境是他个人治国无能、用人不当所致,与读不读书并无直接关系。王夫之还指出梁元帝在读书方面陷入了巨大误区,即使读书万卷,也难有进益。作为帝王,梁元帝读书并没有与治国联系起来,而是“搜索骈丽、攒集影迹、以夸博记”,只读那些辞藻华丽但对其修身治国毫无益处的骈文。可见,于梁元帝而言,读书只不过是装点门面的工具罢了。王夫之批评他“锢志气于寻行数墨之中”“得纤曲而忘大义,迷影迹而失微言”。

          鉴于梁元帝的教训,王夫之提出读书应以“立志为先”。他指出,“子曰:吾十有五而志于学”,坚定志向再读书,才能学有所获。读书若是漫无目的,心志就会被书中内容所左右,游移不定,甚至被异端邪说所迷惑。他认为“志立则学思从之,故才日益而聪明盛,成乎富有;志之笃,则气从其志,以不倦而日新”。只有确立读书的志向,才会在读书的过程中思考书中的道理,每天有所进益,孜孜不倦。

          王夫之还指出了读书的目标和原则,“夫读书将以何为哉?辨其大义,以立修己治人之体也;察其微言,以善精义入神之用也”。这就是说,读书首先要把握住书中宏大的旨意,从而确立自己修己治人的根本法则;其次要体察书中精微的言辞,从而熟练地掌握书中的奥妙变化,并将其运用于洒扫应对的日用之道。读书的根本目的在于将书中的道理与自身的现实处境联系起来,融会贯通,学以致用。

          行难知易,学思结合

          王夫之认为读书不应该局限在书斋当中,只学习书本知识,而应该坚持知行相资,学思结合。王夫之在批判程朱理学“知先行后”和王阳明“知行统一”两种学说的基础上提出了自己独树一帜的知行观。王夫之指出“知行相资以为用”,说明在人们获取知识的过程中,知和行的功能相异,但是二者的相互结合能够使“知”“行”双方都能受益,有助于读者去更好地认知事物。在论述“知”和“行”的关系时,王夫之还提出了“行可兼知,而知不可兼行”的观点,表现出了重“行”的倾向。他认为“知”是“以行为功”的,在“行”的过程中可以获得“知”,但是仅靠“知”的过程无法获得“行”,更无法获得真知。只有躬行实践,才能获得真知,因此王夫之认为“行难知易”。从内在关系上看,王夫之“行可兼知”的观点与我们现代认识论意义上的“实践出真知”思想具有可通约性。

          王夫之也非常重视学思结合。他在《四书训义》中指出:“致知之途有二,曰学,曰思。学则不恃己之聪明,而一唯先觉之是效;思则不循古人之陈迹,而任吾警悟之灵。乃二者不可偏废,而必相资以为功。”“学”与“思”是学习的两条途径,二者相辅相成,不可偏废。“学”是“思”的前提和基础,是思考的材料,只有博览群书,才能知识常新。在拥有一定知识储备之后再进行独立思考,知其然之后,还要探索其所以然。这个思考的过程就是对学习材料的吸收和升华,经过“学”与“思”的结合,读者才能形成自己的判断和见解。王夫之说“学愈博则思愈远;思正有功于学,而思之困则学必勤”,就是强调了学思结合的重要性。

          经世致用,通达权变

          王夫之生活在明清交替的动荡时代,洞悉世情的他极其反对空谈性命的义理之学,力倡经世致用的学术主张。王夫之批评心学注重内省、鼓吹“心悟”的为学路径,认为这种轻视知识的清议思想只会助长“束书不观,游谈无根”的不良学风。而面对明朝后期日益加深的社会危机,那些高谈性命义理的学者们却束手无策,深刻暴露了清谈思想的弊端。

          面对“天崩地解”的社会巨变,王夫之在参加抗清复明运动失败后选择了避居山野。但是他并没有消极遁世,而是对历史和时局进行了深刻反思。他强调要把学术研究和社会现实联系起来,以著说为武器,寻求挽救社会危机的良方。王夫之经世致用的学术主张在其史论思想中表现得最突出。他指出:“所贵乎史者,述往以为来者师也。为史者,记载徒繁,而经世之大略不著,后人欲得其得失之枢机以效法之无由也,则恶用史为?”强调要以史为鉴,以“求治之资”,通过深入思考总结历代王朝盛衰的经验教训,来为现实社会服务,充分发挥史书经邦济世的作用。王夫之指出,在读史的过程中还必须通达权变,他说“三代之法,不可挟以为名,治后世之天下”,因此不能盲目效仿古代的经世之法,需与时代需要和趋势相契合,评史论政,找到一条能够切实解决现实社会问题的革新道路。王夫之也亲自践行了这种经世致用的治学之道,他结合自己对历史和时局的思考,对兵戎、赋役、礼制、刑名等关乎国计民生的社会问题进行了深入探讨,旨在“去危即安、兴利除害”。

          王夫之生平践履笃实,在读书治学上反对空谈义理、重视经世致用;在安身立命上,始终坚持士人精神、践行君子人格,追求外王却能够挣脱名利的樊笼;在大道不彰时能够守静持重、潜心著书。在时代潮流的激变中,“经世致用”是王夫之的治学思想中一以贯之的特点,这反映出一个思想家对历史与现实的深刻反思。时至今日,我们仍能从王夫之的治学思想中获得深刻启发:读书首先要立志得法,体察书中的微言大义;其次要慎思笃行,正确处理“知”与“行”的关系;最后要通达经世,为现实的社会人生服务。

        作者简介

        姓名:黄卉 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:马云飞)
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