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      1.  首页 >> 考古学 >> 现场传真
        明中都遗址:未来的世界文化遗产
        2019年09月25日 10:31 来源:中国文物信息网 作者:周学鹰 等 字号

        内容摘要:明中都遗址独具的历史文化、科学、艺术等价值,完全可以比照世界文化遗产的立项标准。

        关键词:

        作者简介:

        周学鹰 马晓 芦文俊 王志 刘羽菲

          一、营建明中都

          明中都位于淮河南岸的安徽省凤阳县城核心区,是明初规划和营建的第一座都城。洪武二年诏建中都,洪武八年罢建,历六年之久,仍未最终建成,可见其工程量之大。《明中都志》云:“规制之盛,实冠天下”。

          然而,洪武八年四月,朱元璋临时决定罢建中都。《明太祖实录》云“诏罢中都役作,初上欲如周、汉之制营建两京,至是以劳费罢之”。不少学者认为罢建中都的真正原因不仅在于此。

          相比较南京明故宫、北京故宫而言,明中都“令天下名材至斯”、殿坛建筑必须“画绣”、石构件要求“雕饰奇巧”。部分出土文物也印证明中都建筑标准很高,如明中都石刻,如柱础、阶基、栏板、望柱、螭首等,可谓是我国古代石雕艺术巅峰期作品。诚如王剑英先生所言:明中都“在我国古代都城选址、设计思想、规划布局、宫阙制度、建筑工艺、石雕艺术等方面居于承前启后的重要地位,是我国建筑史上的瑰宝”。

          展陈的明中都雕饰精湛的蟠龙柱础

          (凤阳博物馆藏,约2.62 米见方,重达22.2 吨)

          二、从建筑史学、建筑考古学角度认识明中都遗址价值

          建筑史学:明中都规划与设计开一代规制

          首先,在中国古代都城及宫殿建设史上,明中都规划与设计开一代规制。明中都规划与布局是在充分吸收前朝都城精华基础上,又采取了许多创新之举。

          皇城选址。它吸取了南京填燕雀湖筑新宫,而使宫城前昂后洼的教训;选择在凤凰山正南,于平缓坡地上“席山建殿”,让皇城高亢向阳,同时外城又将凤凰山主峰与万岁山峰包绕在内,更显气势雄伟。

          平面布局。明中都是典型的以皇城为中心进行设计,从而形成由皇城(相当于北京城宫城)、禁垣(相当于北京城皇城)、外城——由内而外三道城垣组成的都城建筑模式。这种三重方城的总体布局既是《周礼》中的王城规制,又象征三垣,符合《周易》,体现出皇权神授的帝王思想。

          虽然,我国古代自曹魏邺城之后,都城一般就有南北向主轴线(贯穿不一), 即便贯穿亦非完全对称。前朝元大都、后世明南京亦无类似横街。据此,明中都东西向横街——云霁街,在我国古代都城规划布局中就具有十分重要的地位。在我国古代都城史上空前绝后,实为创举。

          据此,明中都可以说是研究我国集权社会晚期(又一成熟期)都城规划设计思想的最佳实例。对明中都遗址的深入研究有助于我们进一步了解与思考中国古代城市建设与发展的演进历程,无可替代又无与伦比。

          建筑考古学:提供明初都城规划、宫殿建筑技艺实证资料

          明中都遗址是了解唐宋元与明清中国古都转变的一个重要节点。

          明中都规划布局对南京、北京两都均产生深远影响。明中都相关资料的深入发掘,对探讨埋藏地下、建筑覆压、难以开展工作的明南京城与明清北京城,十分有益。

          此外,明中都建造时也曾以元代都城作参照。揭示明中都遗址,对认识元大都规划格局与单体建筑布局等亦有着重要参考意义。明中都是中国都城史上承上启下的一座里程碑。

          明代单体建筑而言,虽然我国目前现存的明代建筑实例不少,但纯粹官方明代建筑数量有限,更勿论原汁原味的明代宫殿建筑。例如,北京故宫三大殿,往往被认为是明代宫殿建筑,实属清代,仅利用明代旧基。

          因此,明中都遗址能完整揭示明中都皇城的规划布局、规模制度以及单体宫殿特色等多方面内容,为系统、完整探究明代官式建造技艺与建筑文化等,提供原初、重要、典型的案例。

          明中都皇城鸟瞰图

          三、从外金水桥、承天门遗址发掘成果看明中都遗址意义

          外金水桥遗址:明中都确立内、外金水河与金水桥制度

          外金水桥遗址于2018年被发掘,共出土外金水桥桥基7座,可分三组。无论是其位置、宽度,还是独有的“三券三伏”砖券结构,都是高等级规制体现。

          当然,此次外金水桥发掘的意义远不仅此。依据目前所掌握资料,在我国宫殿建筑群中,将金水桥用在皇城、宫城内外的做法,内、外金水河与金水桥制度雏形的形成,当在明中都。

          明太祖朱元璋在明中都建设中,率先把内、外金水河纳入宫城建筑群中。换言之,他或可能公开、明确地把对风水文化与民间信仰追求,纳入皇家建设之中,并形成一体化的设计构思、完备的体例。

          另一方面,内、外金水桥这种本该属于地面宫殿的布局规制,又被朱元璋创造性地运用到陵寝制度中,深刻影响了明孝陵规划建设,是明代帝陵陵寝制度发生根本性变革的重要表现之一,并一直沿用至清,甚至民国。朱元璋将两个世界的建筑形制进行全面糅合,体现一种由地下到地面而到天国、由地上而到地下再到天国的循环往复,是其丧葬思想的体现,内容与形式高度统一。

          承天门遗址:“九五至尊”要求的内在体现

          承天门遗址的发掘,为深入认识明中都提供了另一思路。

          承天门是“禁垣”正南门,2015至2018年连续发掘,规模比南京、北京相应门址都大。更重要的是其门洞构造,应是对古代三朝五门形制最直接的模仿和追溯。其“3+2”式门洞格局(也合称为“五”),亦是一种创新。

          明太祖朱元璋本身对“九五至尊”颇为尊崇。明初仅用于皇家工程,如宫殿、陵墓、坛庙、城墙及仪仗、祭祀等。明中叶以降,随僭越风气兴起,逐渐流布社会各阶层。

          明中都的规划设计构想,或可能是将以《考工记》为代表的我国官方正统建筑礼制,与风水为最突出代表的民间营造文化,两者进行高度完美的切合与融合后,综合创造而成。

          四、明中都国家级考古遗址公园建设目标:申报世界文化遗产

          1982年,明中都皇故城被公布为全国重点文物保护单位,明中都皇故城城墙曾被列入《中国世界文化遗产预备名单》。

          2017年12月,明中都皇故城又被公布为第三批国家级考古遗址公园,其文物价值与历史意义不言而喻。

          明中都考古工作者,不辞辛苦,坚持“最小面积、最少破坏、展示优先”三原则,以保护为前提,为未来明中都遗址利用与再研究预留了较大的空间。这就为未来的明中都遗址建设中国都城考古遗址公园,提供了坚实基础。

          这些年来凤阳县委县政府,在有限的财力之下,带领凤阳人民,齐心协力,花巨资申报、建设明中都考古遗址公园,取得了令人瞩目的成就。

          因此,明中都国家级考古遗址公园的建设,包括明中都的考古发掘以及其他多学科的参与和研究等,必在中国考古学史、中国古代都城建设史、中国建筑史乃至世界文化史上,都具有无可替代的学术意义。

          明中都遗址独具的历史文化、科学、艺术等价值,完全可以比照世界文化遗产的立项标准。因此,我们认为未来明中都国家级考古遗址公园的建设目标可以、并且必须朝着名列世界文化遗产的方向迈进,彼时的明中都遗址势必会成为传承与发展中国优秀文化的重要载体。

          这是明中都考古人的使命,更是时代赋予全体凤阳人的宿命。

        作者简介

        姓名:周学鹰 等 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:齐泽垚)
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