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      1.  首页 >> 考古学 >> 考古动态
        陕西石峁遗址出土乐器口簧见证欧亚文化交流
        2019年09月24日 09:47 来源:新华网 作者:杨一苗 字号

        内容摘要:

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        作者简介:

          陕西省考古研究院21日发布考古新发现,在位于陕西省北部神木市的石峁遗址,出土了23件距今约4000年的乐器——口簧。最新研究表明,这一音乐史上的重要发现,是中国北方文化沿欧亚草原向西、向北传播的重要实物。

          石峁遗址是距今约4000年前的超大型史前遗址。据陕西省考古研究院院长孙周勇介绍,这批口簧集中出土于石峁遗址皇城台东护墙北段的第四层堆积之中,这一堆积层是约4000年前生活在这里的人们留下的弃置物。

          从2017年至2018年,考古工作者对这些“垃圾”进行细筛,从中发现23件口簧,其中3件完整,其他均有不同程度残缺。同时,还出土了一些骨片和加工成半成品的口簧。

          口簧,拔奏体鸣乐器,在我国20多个少数民族中流行,多用于娱乐和男女社交活动。石峁出土的口簧为骨质窄条片状,由琴鞘和簧片组成,器身镂刻舌簧,一般长约8至9厘米、宽约1厘米,厚度仅1-2毫米。形制多样,个别口簧在琴鞘或鞘头有刻纹装饰。

          考古发现,与石峁口簧共存了大量陶器、骨器、石器、玉器等古代遗物,其中陶器包括双鋬鬲、单把鬲、粗柄豆等,都具有典型的河套地区龙山时代晚期陶器特征。同时通过碳14测年,可以判断这些口簧约距今4000年左右。而石峁口簧的制作需要经过切磨骨片、剔刻簧舌、簧尾钻孔、精细加工等步骤,这说明在那一时期人们使用工具的能力与器物加工水平都已具有相当水准。

          石峁遗址出土的这批口簧,考古背景明确、共存器物丰富,是目前国内所见年代最早、结构完整、特征明确的口簧。“可以想象这样的场景,在4000年前空旷寂寥的皇城台上,乐师口含口簧,通过口腔与乐器的结合产生‘呷呷’‘嗡嗡’之声,如蝉鸣蜂舞般的声响成为具有仪式感的神秘旋律。”孙周勇说。

          考古工作者结合近年来国内外考古成果,发现公元前2000年左右至公元5世纪,约2500年的历史中,在中国北方、蒙古高原以及俄罗斯南西伯利亚地区的欧亚草原东部区域,出土了一批早期口簧,它们基本结构相似,均为窄条薄片状,多属拉线式。

          对此,孙周勇说,如果将公元2世纪之前的口簧出土地点放置在地图上,一条口簧从中国北方向欧亚草原扩散传播的线路就会自然显现出来。口簧最初的传播可能与北方人群的北进及西迁相关,春秋战国时期,口簧的使用范围持续向四周扩散,在进入匈奴文化区域后向欧亚草原东部扩散,同时向南进入中原地区。至唐宋以后,口簧呈爆发式传播,遍及欧亚大陆、东南亚、大洋洲、非洲等区域,成为一种具有广泛民族性的乐器。

          西安音乐学院副院长李宝杰说,在石峁遗址出土了包括口簧在内的一批重要音乐文物,极大丰富了中国北方地区早期音乐的实物资料,为研究我国史前音乐发展提供了重要信息。而石峁遗址发现的口簧可看作是近现代流行于世界各地的口弦类乐器的祖形,其传播与流布或与古代族群的流动和迁徙以及文化交流有着密切关系,是探讨欧亚草原廊道早期人群活动的重要线索。

        作者简介

        姓名:杨一苗 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:齐泽垚)
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