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      1.  首页 >> 应用经济学 >> 区域经济学
        杨继东 刘凯:中西部地区如何走出发展新兴产业的困境
        2019年08月26日 08:20 来源:中国社会科学网 作者:杨继东 刘凯 字号

        内容摘要:在经济发展相对落后的中西部地区,因地制宜、充分发挥自身比较优势发展新兴产业也十分必要。

        关键词:

        作者简介:

          在当前国际国内形势下,推动战略性新兴产业发展对于中国经济来说具有重要意义。国际经济环境的不确定性依然较高,贸易保护主义势头还没有得到根本遏制,中国经济增长的外部动力依然不足,加之中国出口已经占据国际贸易市场十分庞大的份额,因此依靠内部经济动力、充分挖掘国内市场,成为应对经济下行压力的主要突破口。推动战略性新兴产业发展,不仅能够为中短期经济增长提供新的引擎,而且还是实现产业结构升级和高质量发展、使中国由制造业大国转变为制造业强国、成功跨越“中等收入陷阱”的必然选择。

          发展战略性新兴产业,经济相对发达的沿海地区具有资金、技术、人才等方面的比较优势,但在经济发展相对落后的中西部地区,因地制宜、充分发挥自身比较优势发展新兴产业也十分必要。一方面,这有利于充分调动当地经济资源以实现跨越式发展,解决经济发展不平衡不充分的问题;另一方面,这也能够为“一带一路”、长江经济带等重大发展战略的实施与推进提供有力支撑。

          必须认识到,尽管很多中西部城市都在从无到有、大力推进发展以智能制造、信息产业、高端装备制造等为代表的新兴产业,但是中西部地区发展新兴产业存在明显劣势。例如,发展新兴产业的关键技术薄弱,缺少发展新兴产业的龙头企业,缺少发展相关新兴产业的人才支撑,等等。因此,虽然中西部地方政府发展新兴产业的决心很大、干劲很足、付出很多,但总体来说新兴产业发展仍不尽如人意。那么,中西部地区应该如何走出发展新兴产业的困境呢?四川宜宾推动新兴产业发展的事实和经验,或许可以提供一些参考。

          四川宜宾传统产业主要以白酒和煤炭为主,白酒五粮液享誉全国。为了应对产业单一、产业链较短、吸纳就业能力弱等问题,2016年以来,宜宾开始大力推动产业发展双轮驱动战略,在推进传统产业继续发展的同时,大力发展战略性新兴产业。2018年,八大新兴产业完成投资191.8亿元,同比增长46.1%。新兴产业增加值占全市规模以上工业总量的17.6%,产业影响力迅速提升,其中智能终端增长3.2倍、轨道交通增长37.4%、页岩气增长26.1%、新材料增长15.6%、节能环保增长11.6%、医药增长2.6%。宜宾确定的八大高端成长型产业,成为工业增长和经济发展的新动能。

          宜宾新兴产业的快速发展,为中西部发展新兴产业提供了一些可借鉴的经验。其中核心一条就是,要充分践行创新驱动发展理念,通过创新来推动新兴产业发展。

          首先,地方政府要定位清晰,进行观念上的创新。既要充分尊重市场规律,发挥市场配置资源的决定性作用,又要积极有为,发挥政府在市场制度建设、市场失灵矫正、公共基础设施和公共服务提供,以及合理产业政策实施等方面的积极作用。在分析“一黑一白”传统产业局限的基础上,宜宾结合自身发展特点,提出了发展新兴产业的思路。为了招商引资,宜宾积极谋划,创新招商理念和策略,面对各种困难不回避,破除不利于发展的思想障碍,突破阻碍发展的体制机制。墨守成规、消极应对是不可能推动新兴产业发展的。

          其次是要创新政府服务模式,真心实意为企业服务。为了吸引新兴产业企业,帮助企业在宜宾落地生根,宜宾积极创新政府服务模式,为企业提供“终身保姆、贴身管家、私人订制”的优质服务,努力兑现引资承诺。例如,智能终端产业兑现产业扶持资金67.7亿元;按照协议为各类企业提供了4103亩建设用地、81万平方米标准厂房;将工业电价控制在了0.39元/度,成为川内唯一一个入园工业企业可打包享受全水电直购的园区。为了保障企业用工,宜宾还积极推动企业与当地各专职高校建立合作关系,2018年完成专场招工360场,达成意向就业人数19200人。

          再次是要创新要素供给模式。宜宾提出了“产学研港城”融合发展新思路。中西部地区在劳动力成本方面具有一定优势,但在发展新产业的人才、科技要素方面,相对东部沿海地区比较欠缺。为了弥补要素供给短板,宜宾突出产学研一体化,以大学城和科创城为载体,加快打造教育和科创品牌,构建以教育和科技为引领的经济体系和发展模式,积极引进一批高新技术企业。通过大学城和科创城建设,可以为企业长远发展提供人才支撑和技术支撑。为了解决生产配套问题,宜宾通过园区配套创新,以商招商,弥补产业链短板。通过打造高端产业集聚区,推进新兴产业从项目集聚、要素集聚向企业集聚、产业集聚、创新集聚转变。

          创新是经济社会发展的核心推动力,要推动中西部地区新兴产业发展,就要践行创新驱动发展理念,在观念、政府服务模式、要素供给模式等方面进行符合社会主义市场经济规律的大胆创新。习近平总书记指出,“一个地方、一个企业,要突破发展瓶颈、解决深层次矛盾和问题,根本出路在于创新”。在五大新发展理念中,创新排在首位。只有坚持创新驱动发展,把创新融入发展理念、融入发展模式、融入发展实践,才能加快推动新兴产业发展,实现经济高质量发展。

          

          (作者系中国人民大学经济学院副教授、中国人民大学长江经济带研究院研究员)

        作者简介

        姓名:杨继东 刘凯 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:张文齐)
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