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      1.  首页 >> 文萃
        【文萃】余宏亮:数字时代教师角色的变革与重塑
        2019年09月27日 09:20 来源:《内蒙古社会科学》2018年第5期 作者:余宏亮 字号
        关键词:数字时代;教育生态;教师角色;知识变革

        内容摘要:

        关键词:数字时代;教育生态;教师角色;知识变革

        作者简介:

          数字时代的到来,推进着教学方式、教学关系的解构与重组,实现着教学形态、教学组织的创新与变革。厘清数字时代教师角色转变的应然向度,探寻教师角色转变的现实路径,已成为教育研究无法规避的热点之一。

          一、数字时代教育场域的生态变革

          (一)教育知识观的转型

          知识是教育的核心与灵魂。我们所秉持的知识观影响着对教育理论与实践的认知和理解。在数字化境遇下,知识成为技术的服务对象,技术为知识教学提供了一种全新的思考视窗。数字时代的到来实现了“权威型”知识观到“批判型”知识观的转型,牵动着课程观、教学观、学习观等的深刻变革,使知识成为个体人性解放的“钥匙”,使知识的学习过程成为个体通往真实情景的桥梁。

          (二)教育主体观的位移

          教师主体论、学生主体论与师生双主体论是三种各有倚重的教育主体观。从本质上讲,此三种单子式的“主体性”教育主体观均以对象性思维将教学过程异化为占有关系,势必造成主体间的奴役与控制,阻隔主体间的对话与融通,使人进入“单向度”状态。随着数字时代的到来,教育教学在内容、环境、方式等方面发生了深刻变革,而此种变革亦推动着教育主体观由“主体性”向“主体间性”的置换与位移。在“主体间性”教学场域之中,教师成为教学的组织者、学习的促进者以及资源的提供者,学生成为问题的提出者、知识的探索者以及学习的评价者。概而言之,数字时代生成的“主体间性”教育主体观充分发挥了教师和学生的价值主体作用,使两者成为教学有机统一体,在教学场域之中实现精神的相遇、灵魂的相通,进而形构和谐共生的教学格局。

          (三)教育环境观的更迭

          传统教育环境体现为物理教育环境,在此种环境下成长的个体明显缺乏生存力与生长力。进入数字时代,教育环境实现了从“第一世界”到“第三世界”的现实转向。学校的边界开始模糊,教师的定义开始宽泛,学生的学习方式、学习场域开始超越物理时空,把真实的世界缩小到虚拟的局域网中,为个体创造一种真实世界的“影像”,为个体提供自由探索的场域。学生不再是“被圈养的”被动性存在,其身心得到了舒展与解放,他们学会在信息世界中“猎食”,自主筹划并主动转向自我的生命性完善。

          二、数字时代教师角色的变革向度

          (一)从知识传递者走向知识协同者

          教师对知识的认知与理解影响着其教学方式与行为。随着信息技术的发展和科学技术的进步,网络信息日益呈现出超载、逻辑性匮乏以及弥散性等弊端。在当下的教育发展过程中,如何在浩如烟海的数据海洋中选取有价值的信息,并将其转化为知识,已成为必须破解的严峻问题。教师作为知识协同者角色的形塑,能够为置身于信息海洋中的学生提供指引,帮助学生将信息转化为知识,增加学生知识的系统性、完整性和实用性。

          (二)从课程执行者转向课程研发者

          顺应时代诉求,教师应摒弃课程执行者的传统角色,向课程研发者转型。一方面,教师应利用数字技术为学生创造虚实融合的交互式学习情境,使学生在拟真的情境之中体验学习的乐趣,以调动学生的积极性和主动性;另一方面,教师能够利用新技术,根据学生的个人需要,为学生提供自主探究学习所需的信息和资源,以充分发挥教师在学生学习中的“脚手架”作用。

          (三)从学习监管者迈向学习引领者

          因应数字化对教育教学的影响,教师应转变角色,从学生学习的监督者转变为学习的引领者。首先,作为生命性个体,学生是基因选择性表达的过程,由此造成不同学生持有差异化的思维特质与能力特征。因此,要实现学生禀赋的自由绽放,需要教师依凭“循证”思维和“用户体验”原理,根据学生的智识基础进行精准化教学。其次,网络技术的新发展打破了教学活动的时空界限,教师和学生之间的学习与互动不仅可以发生于真实空间,亦可以发生于虚拟空间。面对学习过程中的障碍与困惑,学生可以通过数字媒介与教师进行沟通与交流,以降低对教师权威的畏惧之情。

          三、数字时代教师角色的重塑路径

          (一)确立共在对话型师生关系

          为纠正传统教师角色认知弊端,促进数字时代教师角色变革,必须转变教师内在价值理念,更新教师角色意识。

          首先,教师应正确看待数字化对自身角色的冲击,实现“制度权威意识”向“魅力权威意识”的有效转变。教师需要顺应数字化发展的时代潮流,形塑魅力权威型角色意识,以实现“感召权威”和“专业权威”的有机融合,造就具有人性化特质的教师角色新样态,实现教师角色与自我个性的完美整合。其次,培养“对话”型师生关系,关注教育教学过程中教师与学生生命的价值实现。建构“共在”“对话”型师生关系,以实现师生间视界的融合、心灵的沟通。

          (二)形塑多层复合型知能结构

          所谓教师知能结构,指的是教师在教育教学过程中所拥有的知识信息及其所反映的能力结构。然而,受传统知识观和教育观的制约,当下教师的知能结构还较为单一,甚至呈现出知能结构毁损偏废的样态,因而抑制了教师创造力的发挥和应用力的提升。

          置身技术时代,单一型教师知能结构已无法满足数字化的时代要求,形塑教师多层复合型知能结构已成为当务之急。一方面,应建构教师多层复合型知识结构。具体包括科学人文基础知识层、学科专业知识层、教育科学知识层以及信息技术知识层四个层面。另一方面,应建构教师多层复合型能力结构。面对虚拟化、开放化的教育教学环境,教师应在习得基本教学能力的基础上,加强信息技术运用能力、数字化生存能力的优化与提升,以建构多层复合型知能结构。

          (三)建构共生发展型学习共同体

          数字时代背景下教师教学生态的良序发展,可以建构基于数字技术的共生发展性学习共同体,以优化教师间的协作、交流与对话,实现教学实践的改善、学科素养的提升以及专业品质的养成,进而生成协同应对数字化冲击的组织和能力。

          首先,营造对话性文化氛围。对话是建立学习共同体的逻辑前提,而数字技术的新发展为教师个体与他者互动和对话的充分展开提供了生态环境和开放场域。其次,创建“共在”性合作平台。教师应充分抓住数字技术发展的时代机遇,寻求具有共同愿景的他者,通过数字媒介创建资源聚合、发挥群体智能的互动平台,从而将离散的原子化教师个体结成“网络空间命运共同体”。

          (作者单位:人民教育出版社课程教材研究所。《内蒙古社会科学》2018年第5期,中国社会科学网 张彦/摘)

        作者简介

        姓名:余宏亮 工作单位:人民教育出版社课程教材研究所

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:韩卓吾)
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