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        蒙顶山上海棠开 从一普通村庄变迁看四川退耕还林还草20年
        2019年09月17日 09:50 来源:四川日报 作者:王成栋 字号

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          9月12日,蒙顶山深处,雅安市名山区中峰乡海棠村挤满了车辆。“看你要哪一种茶叶,几十、几百一斤都有。”见几位外地游客凑上来,56岁的郑环彩开始谈生意。郑环彩不仅卖茶叶,还把自家的房子改成了农家乐,一年的收入在7万元上下。

          作为蒙顶山茶核心产地,秋茶正集中上市,还要举办首届桂花节。茶和桂花是海棠村的两大致富树,是退耕还林带来的新产业。

          1999年9月,四川启动退耕还林还草试点,至今正好20年。全省已有263.6万贫困人口通过退耕还林还草脱贫,海棠村就是具有代表性的案例。

          记者 王成栋

          A

          回望20年前的难题

          海棠村毁林开荒恶性循环,种地只够糊口,水土流失严重

          20年前,郑环彩家的三亩地刚够糊口,一家人的日常开销要靠老伴跑运输来维持。

          63岁的村民侯清良说,他从记事起就上山开荒,头年冬春放倒树木,晾晒一年,搬走木材后,再一把火烧光杂草和树根,清理掉土层里的石块。但新开的荒地,产量往往只能维持个两三年。雨水多的年份还必须休耕,因为每逢雨季,在一半土地坡度大于15度的海棠村,田里的“泥汤汤”就会不断溢出,水土流失严重。

          当地海拔700多米,阴雨多,光照不足,即便大量施肥,水稻亩产量也不高。2002年前后,全村人均年收入不过1500元。村民只得向更高的山上开垦,村里仅存下500余亩山林了。

          “愈垦愈穷,愈穷愈垦。坡度在大于15度-25度这个区间时,耕地没有办法稳定保持肥力。”省社科院研究员李晟之介绍,我省经历了60余年的高烈度垦殖阶段,至上世纪末,盆周大量陡坡荒山荒坡变成农田,短时间内一定程度上增加了四川农业产出,但在上世纪90年代前后,生态集中爆发和经济恶果。

          在海棠村,1998年的夏季洪水,冲走了村里的牛,部分人家的房子被山洪撕成了碎片。原省林业厅厅长曹正其记得,1998年长江流域发生特大洪水,四川是主要泥沙来源地,坡耕地水土流失是主要因素之一。

          1999年,全川共有坡度大于25度的耕地1300余万亩,平均产粮食仅346斤,与同年全省平均亩产690斤的水平相比差一大截。

          退耕,已经成为当年破解山区农村生态恶化和经济困境的必然选择。

          B

          打开这些年的“旧账”

          退耕还林,给补贴保温饱,退耕户算账后在陡坡耕地种下树苗

          3年后试点结束,2002年,四川在全省范围内大规模启动退耕还林还草行动,海棠村也在其中,全村2000亩耕地有725亩划入还林区。

          当时的稻谷收购价只有0.41元/斤,种粮几乎没有利润。但退耕令下达后,部分村民却不愿意了。侯清良说,部分农户抵触情绪较大:不种粮食,以后吃啥?

          “想要退得下,就得保证退耕户温饱不出问题。”省林业和草原局副巡视员、时任省林业厅造林绿化处副处长的王玉琳说,当时,国家的补贴政策是每亩每年300斤稻谷,“根据实时价格,也可以换成玉米等杂粮,基本温饱不会出问题。”

          “当时国家农业增产势头旺盛,库存比较多,价格比较稳定。”原国家林业局退耕办老干部仇明山介绍,世纪之交,我国粮食连年大丰收,1998、1999两年累计建设的粮库仓容就达700亿斤。

          每亩300斤的补贴标准是根据各退耕区域产量核定的。“这些地方一年亩产也就300多斤粮食,再加一点秋季作物,扣除成本,最多就挣个一两百斤稻谷的钱。”雅安市林业局退休干部李长连说,算清经济账后,退耕户们对补贴额度比较满意,“毕竟,收益比种地还要好。”

          2004年前后,根据中央指示,四川决定采取货币补贴方式,按照当年稻谷收购价0.7元/斤,将粮食折合成现金发放。同时,鉴于各地造林基本完成,再次加码补贴力度——每亩每年给予20元的护林经费。

          2002年秋季,海棠村的村民背着铁锹和树苗,走进了各自的陡坡耕地,照着林业技术人员的指导,一点一点地把树苗种下。第二年汛期,山沟里的“泥汤汤”就大为减少。等到秋季,原国家林业局和原省林业厅等部门派出的验收组到山上走了一圈,确认还林面积和还林成果后,现场兑现了补贴。

          省林业和草原局统计,20年来,我省累计兑现各类还林护林补贴437亿元,受惠农民2200余万人。

          C

          绿水青山就是金山银山

          退耕还林催生了蒙顶山茶产业,补贴停了,“饭碗”端得却更牢了

          补贴终止后,该如何维持生活?退耕户们的担心,不是没有理由。

          补贴有终止期限。2002年全面启动退耕还林时,就明确将还林区划分成经济林和生态林。考虑树木生长周期长等因素,设置相对较长的补贴时限:经济林补贴10年,生态林补贴16年,均分两轮执行。四川省退耕还林还草工程管理中心主任张洪明解释,在当时的环境下,扭转长江上游水土流失恶化是第一要务。1999年开始试点、2002年大规模执行的第一轮退耕还林,更为强调生态效益。2014年新一轮退耕还林启动,就全面取消经济林和生态林比例限制。

          不少村民悄悄地在林子里套种玉米、蔬菜等。但复耕的打算很快就被林业部门勒令禁止。“如果林子里长不出‘票子’,就算树栽活了,效果也不会很好。”省林业和草原局副局长唐代旭说,退耕还林不只是一项生态建设工程,也是退耕区产业转型,必须切实增加农户的收入,才能确保退耕还林“稳得住”。

          如何让林子里长出“票子”?目光落在了茶叶上。

          省林科院副院长慕长龙介绍,早在上世纪六十年代,四川农业大学等高校科研单位就在海棠村附近的山上建起了茶种基地,培育了多个适宜当地气候的树种。蒙顶山一带为酸性土壤,阴雨多、常年无霜,适合茶叶生长。

          到2005年,海棠村退耕地全部种上了茶树。2007年茶叶开始上市。农户除了还林护林补贴,有了长期稳定收入来源。

          2010年前后,海棠村剩余土地也种上了茶叶,茶叶变成了主打产业,茶园亩产值上万元,纯利润6000元上下。

          名山区林业局绿化股股长沈芝虎表示,某种意义上,正是退耕还林催生了蒙顶山茶产业。当地已完成的11.09万亩还林地全部转变成了茶园,助推蒙顶山茶从4.7万亩猛增至35.2万亩,成为该区农业产业的支柱。

          2017年,退耕第二轮补贴就要到期。村干部早就召集大伙商议:补贴彻底停掉后,还有什么增收办法?

          这一次,村民选择了桂花树。2015年,海棠村茶园全部套种了桂花。政府部门牵线搭桥,利用茶叶、桂花和山势打造观光景区。

          2017年,桂花绽放,景区对外开放,海棠村有了新产业。退耕户们纷纷开起了农家乐、餐馆和商铺,收入再次攀升。去年,村里人均纯收入突破2.5万元,成了远近闻名的富裕村和小康村。

          “其实,被改变的不止是海棠村。从全省层面来看,退耕还林还草也是富民工程、惠民工程。”唐代旭介绍,自1999年启动试点以来,全省累计完成退耕还林还草近4000万亩,四川森林覆盖率因此提升四个百分点以上。对比1998年,全川每年输入长江泥沙量减少近一半。还林地建成约3000万亩特色林、农产业基地,依托这些特色基地陆续培育出森林康养、生态旅游等新业态。

        作者简介

        姓名:王成栋 工作单位:

        转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:张彦)
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